Encyrtus

California Encyrtus
February 2017
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1 Brachypterous …………..………………………………………………………… saliens
1′ Full winged ……………………………………………………………………………. 2

2(1) Hind tarsus uniformly dark; frons virtually devoid of setae-bearing punctures; scutum wholly orange except for anterior border ………………………………… sp. 1
2’ Hind tarsus medially white; frons with many setae-bearing punctures; scutum more extensively darkened ………………………………………………..…………….…. 3

3(2) Vertex in dorsal view about 1.5x wider than eye width; F6 usually virtually quadrate, only slightly wider than long ……………………………..………………….… fuscus
3’ Vertex in dorsal view only slightly wider than eye width; F6 distinctly wider than long ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

4(3) Scape with brown stripe along dorsal margin; scutum uniformly sculptured; posterior margin of hypopygium with a distinct median notch ………..…….. aurantii
4’ Scape with only a brown spot at distal apex dorsally; scutum longitudinally striate laterally, mesally imbricate-reticulate; posterior margin of hypopygium without median notch ……………………………………………………….…………… infelix

 

Sp. 1 Tehama County (RLZC). Using Noyes (2010), this species keys out to E. praeceps, but differs in several minor characters.

 

Described Nearctic species and distribution

aurantii (Geoffrey, 1785): CAN (ON), CR, USA (AL, CA, CO, CN, DC, FL, KS, LA, MI, NJ, NY, OH, TX)
fuscus (Howard, 1881): CAN (ON, QC), USA (AL, CA, CN, KS, MA, NJ, NY, NC, OH, TN, VA, WI)
infelix (Embleton, 1902): MEX, USA (CA [introduced], FL, NY, TX)
marilandicus (Girault, 1917): USA (KS, ME, MD, NH, NY, NC, SC)
saliens Prinsloo & Annecke, 1978: introduced USA (CA)

 

Remarks
Sugonjaev & Gordh (1981) presented a key to the Holarctic species, Trjapitzin & Myartsen (2004) to the species of Mexico, Central America, West Indies & Bermuda, and Noyes (2010) to the Costa Rica species. Noyes (2010) notes that the white hind tarsus is a stable character for separating E. aurantii (and presumably E. infelix) from other species, while Sugonjaev & Gordh (1981) report the hind tarsus of E. fuscus is similarly marked. Specimens referable to E. fuscus appear to be the most common Encyrtus taxon in the state, but there are single specimens from Plumas County (RLZC) and Los Angeles and Ventura counties (LACM) that agree in all respects with E. fuscus, except the hind tarsus is uniformly dark. Essig’s (1958) figure #708 of E. fuscus (as E. californicus), has a white hind basitarsus, which is probably erroneous. The similarity of E. fuscus with E. infelix is quite striking, and I suspect these may ultimately prove to be synonyms. Encyrtus fuliginosus Compere, 1940 was imported from South Africa in 1937 and released in southern California for the biocontrol of Saissetia oleae, but failed to establish (Bartlett, 1978). In 1953, a species tentatively identified as E. infidus (Rossi, 1790), was introduced from Japan in a biocontrol program against Eulecanium kunoense and released in Contra Costa County (Clausen, 1955). A single individual collected in Contra Costa County in June 1953 (EMEC) represents the only specimen recovered.

 

References
Bartlett, B.R. 1978. Coccidae. Pp. 57-74 in Clausen, C.P. (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 480: 545 pp.
Clausen, C.P. 1955. Releases of recently imported insect parasites and predators in California, 1952-53. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 31: 77-79.
Compere, H. 1940. Parasites of the black scale, Saissetia oleae, in Africa. Hilgardia 13: 387-423.
Embleton, A.L. 1902. On the economic importance of the parasites of the Coccidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological society of London 35: 219-229.
Essig, E.O. 1958. Insects and mites of Western North America. Macmillan, New York, 1050 pp.
Geoffroy, E.L. 1785. (in Fourcroy, A.F. de.). Entomologia Parisiensis; sive catalogus Insectorum, quae in agro Parisiensi reperiuntus; secundum methodam Geoffraeriam in sectiones, genera et species distributii; cui addita sunt nomina trivialia et fere recentae novae species, pars secunda. Paris: 233-544.
Girault, A.A. 1917. Descriptiones Hymenopterorum Chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus V. Private publication, Glenndale, Maryland: 16 pp.
Howard, L. O. 1881. (In Comstock, J.H. Report of the entomologist for 1880). Report of the parasites of Coccidae in the collections of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Part III. Report. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington (Entomology) 1880: 350-372.
Prinsloo, G.L. & Annecke, D.P. 1978. On some new and described Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Ethiopian region. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 41: 311-331.
Rossi, P. 1790. Fauna Etrusca, sistens Insecta quae in provinciis Florentina et Pisana praesertim collegit Petris Rossius 2. Liburni: 348 pp.
Sugonjaev, E.S. & Gordh, G. 1981. Taxonomy and trophic relations of parasitic wasps of the genus Encyrtus Latr. (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) of the Holarctic Region. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 60(4): 883-897.
Trjapitzin, V.A. & Myartseva, S.N. 2004. Especies del género Encyrtus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) en México, América Central, Indias Occidentalis y Bermudas. Vedalia 11: 17-33.