Weed warriors: Allie, Shiran, Cameron, Taylor, Alba, Pete, Tim, Marissa, Sakina, Leslie, and Zeal after 2 hours of pulling and rolling ivy. Not in photo – Theron, Ellen, Lily, Kyra.
Thanks to everyone who helped out at our weed pulling party on May 7, 2019! The Essig Museum and Entomology Club teamed up with CalPIRG and others to pull ivy and other weeds outside the Valley Life Science Building to prepare the area for restoration of native plants. The “Essig Garden” will be an outdoor education space to learn about how insects, spiders, birds, and other wildlife interact with their habitats, and the value of native plants to reduce irrigation needs. The Garden is also part of CalPIRG’s effort to make UC Berkeley a Xerces Society Bee Campus.
Volunteers pulling and rolling 15 ft strands of Algerian ivy.
Before the battle: The area between VLSB and LSA before the weed warriors launched their assault.
Have you ever touched the wings of a moth or butterfly and gotten some “powder” on your fingers? That powder is actually tiny scales, like on a fish or lizard, or like the feathers of a bird. These scales give butterflies and moths their scientific name Lepidoptera (from the Greek Lepido = scale, and ptera = wing). Each scale can be a different color and when placed next to each other, the mosaic makes up the color patterns we see. Some are brightly colored to warn that this species does not taste good (aposematism), or look like distasteful species (Batesian mimicry), while others look like eye spots to startle predators (image to the left), and still others form a camouflage pattern to blend in with their background.
Most colors are caused by pigments that form inside the individual scales and reflect light through holes on the scale surface (image to the right), while others, especially blues, are structural and result from light refracting off of ridged surfaces, like looking at the underside of a DVD. For more information on how blue (structural) colors are formed on butterflies watch KQED’s Deep Look episode “What gives the morpho butterfly its magnificent blue?” featuring the research of Essig Museum faculty affiliate, Dr. Nipam Patel.
Edward S. Ross (1915-2016) was a pioneer of close up photography. Ed received his PhD in 1941 with the Department of Entomology at UC Berkeley, where he was a teaching assist for E.O. Essig. Before finishing his degree he was offered the position of Curator of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco in 1939, and two years later became chair of the entomology department, a position he held for 41 years. Initially Ed was interested in Histerid beetles, but soon switched to webspinners (Embiidina), a group for which little was known at the time. His studies took him around the world, particularly to the tropics where webspinners are most diverse. During his travels Ed photographed arthropods, plants, mammals, people, and natural landscapes. His images appeared in numerous publications including National Geographic Magazine, Insects Close Up, and Insects and Plants. In 2018, Ed’s collection of ~100,000 35mm slides were generously donated to the Essig Museum of Entomology by his wife, Sandra Miller Ross, to be digitized and made available for research, education, and outreach. Once digitized, the images will be available through CalPhotos.
Ride, walk, or jog along the Greenway in Emeryville and you will be greeted by a swarm of Bay Area “bugs”. Commissioned by the city of Emeryville, Joey Rose created two murals, titled “Ascend”, depicting some of the Bay Area’s most important inhabitants – the insects. Part of Emeryville’s park system, this green space cuts through the heart of Emeryville connecting Oakland to Berkeley. “The Greenway hopes to connect people with nature and serves as an “escape” in a historically industrial city,” says Rose. “My murals reflect this ideal. The intended audience is anyone who may happen to see them. It’s important for people of any age or demographic to feel connected to nature and see the importance of preservation.”
For inspiration, Joey visited the Essig Museum to photograph and sketch his subjects. I asked him why insects for this project. “Insects are an often ignored part of the ecosystem. Unfortunately, there is a stigma against insects. They are usually portrayed as being disgusting or scary. I wanted to show the true beauty of insects. This is a sight-specific mural, so I wanted to highlight local and native Bay Area insects. I hope people will be reminded of my painting when they see these insects around the Bay and vice-versa.”
The murals were unveiled on May 10, 2018 at 5768 Peladeau Street in Emeryville to an enthusiastic crowd. “The two figures in the murals are literally being carried by these insects,” says Rose. “I think that is really the core of what I want people to come away with. It’s not so important that they can identify each and every insect. What’s important is to get people thinking about how essential every creature is to not only our ecosystem, but to us (humans) as fellow members of that ecosystem. Even the little guys are important!”
You have probably noticed a lot of these critters around town lately; they seem to be just about everywhere this time of year. These eye-catching little beasts go by many names, including “Cross Orb-Weaver,” “European Garden Spider,” and “Pumpkin Spider,” among others,1,2 but their proper scientific name is Araneus diadematus. (Note: common names like “Garden Spider” or “Pumpkin Spider” may refer to a number of different spider species, which is understandable given that there are an estimated 47,000 (or more)3 spider species on earth! Since we have not come up with 47,000 unique common names for all of these species, it is best to use scientific names to avoid confusion.)
Araneus diadematus are tan, brownish or orange, with yellow, white and black markings and a distinctive “T” or cross pattern on the back of their spade-shaped abdomen. Adults can range from about 6-20 mm in body length, not including the legs.4 Females are much larger than males and have been known to cannibalize hopeful suitors who approach them to mate.5 You are most likely to find these spiders on their characteristic “orb webs”: those beautifully geometric, Charlotte’s Web-style constructions of spiral-shaped silk supported by spokes radiating from a central hub. This web shape is typical of the spider family Araneidae (“orb weavers”).
Although A. diadematus can be found in the Bay Area throughout the year, their numbers and visibility peak in the fall because this is when they reach maturity. They are not native to this region, they originated in Europe, but their range now extends across the U.S. and into many parts of Canada.1A. diadematus can occur at remarkably high densities in both natural areas (like woods and parks) and urban environments. Whether they truly qualify as “invasive” (which, by definition, would require having a negative impact on the environment) is debatable, but one thing is for sure: they are enormously successful here.
So what are they doing on those lovely spiral webs? Mostly lying in wait for prey, which consists of insects like flies, beetles and aphids.6 The spiral on the web is made of sticky silk, and when unwitting insects blunder into this structure, they get stuck. The insects struggle, creating vibrations through the web. The spiders, although they have poor eyesight, are incredibly sensitive to vibrations, and by resting in the center of the web – where the “spokes” converge – the spiders can detect exactly where to find the prey based on which silk strands are vibrating.7 The spider then uses a combination of biting and silk-wrapping to immobilize the hapless prey before settling down to eat. Since this whole process damages the web, A. diadematus builds a fresh web each day, eating the old one to recycle the silk.
Some people may find A. diadematus creepy or frightening, and these spiders do look formidable when they are fully grown (not to mention that we usually see a lot of them around Halloween!). However, there is no reason to fear these autumnal creepy crawlies: they are completely harmless. Although they do possess venom – as do almost all spiders – the venom’s function is to paralyze insects, not to hurt large vertebrates like us. And while a bite from one of these guys might be painful and cause a small localized reaction8 (much like a bee sting), the chances of being bitten are so slim that it is a non-issue. These spiders are not the least bit aggressive; they like to keep to their webs and mind their own business, and would only bite as a last resort (i.e. if they were about to be squished). So next time you walk through a huge web that a resident A. diadematus thoughtfully constructed right in front of your door, do not panic – the spider is running for the hills as we speak. If you are lucky, your little 8-legged buddy might stumble into your hands and let you take a closer look!
Elgar, M. A. and D. R. Nash. 1988. Sexual cannibalism in the garden spider. Animal Behaviour 36(5): 1511-1517.
Ludy, C. 2007. Prey selection of orb-web spiders (Araneidae) on field margins. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 119(3): 368-372.
Landolfa, M. A. and F. G. Barth. 1996. Vibrations in the orb web of the spider Nephila clavipes: Cues for discrimination and orientation. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 179(4): 493-508.
McKeown, N., R. S. Vetter, and R. G. Hendrickson. 2014. Verified spider bites in Oregon (USA) with the intent to assess hobo spider venom toxicity. Toxicon 84: 51-55.
On February 12, 2018 the Essig Museum hosted another great Evolution Day in honor of Charles Darwin’s birthday. Over 120 students, staff, faculty, and folks from all around the Bay Area got a behind the scenes look at the Museum and some of our special displays. Thank you to our colleagues at the UC & Jepson Herbaria, UC Paleontology Museum, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and UC Botanical Garden for supplying specimens and information for the displays.
At a reception afterwards, Dr. Peter Oboyski summarized some of the outstanding achievements of the Essig over the past year, including: a collaboration with the Muzeum of Vertebrate Zoology on a multi-taxon survey of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia (hear more about this project this Friday at Essig Brunch); an Entomology at Cal Reunion in October; new specimen donations and accessions, and a temporary funding increase from the Vice Chancellor of Research and the Deans of Letters & Science and College of Natural Resources. The temporary funding increase will facilitate efforts to secure the financial future for the Essig Museum.
Our next big event is Cal Day on April 21 when we will welcome guests to view displays, touch live insects, and get behind the scenes tours of the museum in English, Spanish, Russian, and Mandarin – hope to see you there!
Entomology student, Jessica, talking about Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets).
Students checking out the giant African termite queens, and a marine iguana from the MVZ.
Specimens collected by Charles Darwin in Tierra del Fruego during the Voyage of the Beagle.
Entomology graduate student, Sean Perez, admiring a mimicry display by Professor Nipam Patel.
Carnivorous plants from the UC Botanical Garden.
Lots of happy guests enjoying their visit to the Essig Museum.
Thanks to Helina Chen (University of California Paleontology Museum) for taking photos!
On October 21st, 2017, as part of Alumni / Homecoming Weekend, the Essig Museum of Entomology hosted a gathering for UC Berkeley entomology alumni. We reached out to former undergraduate and graduate students from Berkeley’s entomology program and saw some familiar faces and met others who were part of our university’s entomological past. Alumni reconnected with one another, enjoyed food, wine, talks and exhibits from our current faculty, graduate students, and the Essig Museum. Award for farthest traveled to attend the event goes to Kim Hoelmer, from Newark, Delaware! It was wonderful to meet and catch up with Berkeley entomologists from the past and present- we plan to make this an annual event.
In attendance: Shan Amin, Elizabeth Arias, Dick Arnold, Cheryl Barr, Dylan Beal, Art Berlowitz, Roberta and Bob Brett, Jan Buellesbach, Leo & Ana Caltagirone, Don Calvert, Elizabeth Cash, Les Casher, Kezia Coster, Sara Crews, Paul & Maria da Silva, Paul Daley, John De Benedictis, Kim Do, Jenny Florio, David Garnick, Josh Gibson, Rosemary Gillespie, Natalie Graham, Charles Griswold, Lisa Marie Harris, Shiran Hershcovich, Kim Hoelmer, Casey Hubber, Deanna Jackson, Alan Kaplan, Susan Kennedy, Max Klepikov, Anthena Lam, Bob Lane, Vernard & Lisa Lewis, Jessica Maccaro, Kevi Mace, Patina Mendez, Seongmin Nam, Ida Naughton, Peter Oboyski, Nina Pak, Sean Perez, Alan Poropat, Jerry Powell, Julian Rasco, Vince and Cheryl Resh, Kevin Roberts, George Roderick, Valle Rogers, Paul Rude, Bill Shepard, Andre Szeiner, Lisa Treidel, Neil Tsutsui, Matthew Van Dam, Brandt Weary, Noah Whiteman, Brian Whyte, Kip Will, Caroline Williams, David & Caroline Wood, and Bob Zuparko.
Dr. Jerry Powell was honored on July 30, 2017, at the Lepidopterist Society annual meeting in Tucson, Arizona, with a symposium organized by John Brown, Dan Rubinoff, and Dave Wagner. Speakers included students and colleagues who roasted and toasted Jerry, who sat with his wife Liz in arm chairs at the front of the room. A general theme throughout the presentations (besides Jerry’s demanding and often gruff facade) was how he influenced the trajectory of each person’s career. Others who chimed in remotely, either by Skype or email, included: Dan Janzen, Jim Liebherr, Cheryl Barr, and John De Benedictis.
Jerry is known largely for his work in Lepidoptera, particularly microlepidoptera (ie. small moths). His publications (>240) include Moths of Western North America, (Field Guide to) California Insects, the biology and systematics of spruce budworm, Lepidoptera of the California Channel Islands, yuccas and yucca moths, insects of California sand dune habitats, and a long list of collaborations on various moth groups, including the taxonomy, systematics, and biology of Tortricidae, Heliodinidae, Ethmiidae, Prodoxidae, Pyralidae, and many others. He described as new 227 species of Lepidoptera, and collected over 440 holotypes in various groups. Over 40 species of insects have been named for Powell in seven orders to-date (Hemiptera x1, Neuroptera x1, Diptera x9, Coleoptera x4, Hymenoptera x5, Trichoptera x1, Lepidoptera x22). A true “vacuum cleaner” collector, Powell has contributed many hundreds of thousands of specimens to the Essig Museum of Entomology, where he still curates the Lepidoptera collection a few hours every day.
Speakers also reminded the audience of their favorite Powell quotes and phrases: “If it was easy someone would have done it already”, “Science moves forward by creeps and jerks”, “chowdered”, “corked”, “good grief”, “One larva; two larvae / NO EXCEPTIONS”, Powell’s Law: “No biologist studies anything found within 100 miles of where they live.”
Although Jerry’s main research focus has always been the insect fauna of western North America, especially California, what was evident from the comments of speakers and other contributors is Jerry’s depth and breadth of knowledge in both insects and plants (and their interactions), and his influence on the careers of entomologists throughout the country and on most continents. Perhaps just as telling is a comment made by a citizen scientist helping to digitize label data from the Essig Museum specimen collection through our Notes From Nature portal who quipped, “Who is this Jerry Powell? Is he some sort of vampire? He has been collecting for over 60 years!”
The Essig Museum of Entomology was featured in the fall 2017 issue of the California Alumni Magazine. The issue explores the many different uses of the word “bug”, as best explained by UC Berkeley School of Information professor, Geoffrey Nunberg, in Krissy Eliot’s article An Entomological Etymology. The feature article on the Essig Museum, by Pat Joseph, explores the past, present, and future importance of The Bug Collection. The magazine also includes For Love of Roaches: confessions of an entomophile by Kaitlyn Kraybill-Voth, a UC Berkeley graduate who spent over three years working as a collections assistant in the Essig Museum.
As if the words and photos are not enough, video journalist Marika Petrey created four short videos that are available below: Introducing Bugged, How to Mount a Moth, How to Kill the Specimen, and Why Entomology? These videos provide a sneak peak into the daily activities of the Essig Museum. Enjoy!
Led by the Essig Museum of Entomology’s Dr. Peter Oboyski, this workshop is open to anyone who is curious about butterflies: perfect for naturalists, gardeners, and enthusiasts alike, in this course we will explore the diversity of butterflies, their life cycles and host plants, behaviors, and identification, with a special focus on California and the Bay Area. We will also discuss how to promote butterflies in your own neighborhood by providing resources for both larvae and adults. This workshop includes a tour of the Essig Museum, a field trip to nearby native butterfly habitats, and a visit from some guest speakers!
Enrollment is still open for this course! For more information or to register, contact Allyson Ayalon, Public Programs Coordinator at the Jepson Herbarium. Phone: 510-643-7008. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.