Published Names of Cockerell

The Published Names of T.D.A. Cockerell

Robert Zuparko (last updated March 2017)


Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell (1866-1948) was an indefatigable scientist, teacher and writer, whose publishing career reputably started at age 12 and continued until his death at 81, and included over 9,000 new scientific (Latinized) names. Early in his career he focused mostly on gastropods (slugs and snails) and homopterans (scales and mealybugs), but the bulk of his names are for bees. These names are presented here in 4 parts: Part I includes the Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants), Part II comprises all other Insecta, Part III includes all other taxa, and Part IV includes the unavailable names.

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Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell (1866-1948) was an indefatigable scientist, teacher and writer, whose publishing career reputably started at age 12 and continued until his death at 81. His was a wide-ranging career, encompassing topics as varied as natural history and taxonomy, evolution, genetics and biogeography, as well as social reform and education. As a biological researcher, it may be argued that the diversity of the taxa he studied is second only to Linnaeus, as Cockerell treated mollusks, insects, arachnids, fungi, mammals, fish and plants, and dealt with fossil taxa as well as extant groups. For example, among the extant insect orders, he published descriptions of taxa from Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Embidiina, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Mecoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Thysanura and Trichoptera. Today however, he is probably best known for his work on bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

Cockerell was a largely self-taught biologist, his formal higher education limited to attending the Middlesex Hospital Medical School (without obtaining a degree). Cockerell suffered from tuberculosis, which has led some people to speculate that he published quickly in fear that his life would be cut short. When he began his career, the short published note was the most efficient method of mass communication regarding current activities – acting to some extent as e-mail does today – and Cockerell took advantage of this format to treat the hundreds of taxa he came across. Dr. P.H. Timberlake reputedly reported that when traveling by train across the western United States, Cockerell would get out and collect bees at a watering station, and by the time the train made it’s next stop, he’d telegraphed a new description to a publisher.  Many of his descriptions are short and many of his taxa are distinguished largely by color differences. He was regarded by some of his contemporaries as an extreme “splitter”. Thus, it is likely that a significant proportion of Cockerell’s names will ultimately prove to be synonyms.

Several biographies of Cockerell have been published, and in 1965 Dr. William Weber, of the University of Colorado, prepared Cockerell’s bibliography. Besides traditional research papers which appeared in reputable scientific journals, Weber also included newspaper articles and privately printed papers authored by Cockerell, listing a total of 3904 numbered items. However there has never yet been published a list of the scientific names Cockerell authored or coauthored, although Cockerell kept a running tally of the taxa he named or described – in 1938 (Weber’s reference #3687) Cockerell noted that up to that time he had published 5,480 names of specific or subspecific bee taxa, and another 146 names of genera and subgenera.

I became aware of this gap in the literature when recurating the Apoidea in the Essig Museum of Entomology. Many of the bee names in our collection were ascribed to Cockerell, but I had difficulty tracking down the validity and dates of these taxa. The museum possessed a good collection of Cockerell’s reprints, but these were virtually useless without a taxonomic index. Therefore I decided to construct such an index myself, a task I undertook only because of  the nexus of three factors: 1). Weber’s 1965 listing of Cockerell publications, 2). an almost complete set of reprints of Cockerell’s “Descriptions and Records of Bees” (a series of papers originally published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History) in the Museum (one of several sets which Dr. William Weber had distributed to various entomological institutions after the death of Cockerell), and 3). access to the Library of the University of California, Berkeley, one of the world’s premier institutions for accessing older biological literature.

I have endeavored to be as inclusive as possible, but have undoubtedly missed some names or presented other erroneous data. Happily, one of the advantages of presenting taxa lists electronically is the relative ease with which data can be updated and mistakes corrected – which I am most willing to do, should such errata be brought to my attention.



I began the project using Weber’s 1965 bibliography of Cockerell as my “bible”. I noted each paper listed therein which was likely to include a new scientific name, ignoring newspaper articles and other such non-taxonomical entries. I then endeavored to find and inspect each of these papers, recording each newly proposed name therein. My “area of search” for these papers included both reprint collections from the Essig Museum and the Department of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) in San Francisco, California, as well as the libraries at UC Berkeley and the CAS, and the collection of Cockerell’s papers in the Norlin Museum at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Regretfully, I was not able to locate every paper of interest listed in Weber. Most of the missing papers date from the periods 1883-1888 (mostly treating English mollusks and natural history), and from 1892-1893 (including those in several Jamaican journals, published when Cockerell was focused on scale insects). In an effort to double check my results and fill in these missing gaps, I also consulted numerous catalogs, checklists and other references of groups in which Cockerell may have proposed new names, and made liberal use of consulting the internet. Finally, I tracked down a few missing bee names through the assistance of several melittologists, and I found a few names in some Cockerell papers not listed by Weber.

My results comprise Cockerell’s available, scientific (“Latinized”) names. These include the taxa he originally described or co-described, as well as previously described taxa for which he nominated new names (typically due to preexisting homonymies). I have included not only specific names, but also supraspecific and subspecific names. Within the latter category, I lumped together those taxa originally classified by Cockerell as subspecies, varieties, races, forms,  mutations and “monstrosities”. Some of these taxa have since been elevated in rank, retained as formal subspecies (or other subspecific rank), or formally synonymized under another name, while others are not recognized by formal nomenclatural rules.

I excluded taxa described by Cockerell to which he did not attach a name (e.g. “variety α”). I also did not include plant hybrids without unique names (e.g. Aquilegia desertorum X chrysantha), nor did I include taxa which Cockerell described after someone else named them (e.g. Cecidomyia atriplicis Townsend, 1893), or those names published in a Cockerell paper that are attributable to another author. I have also excluded published misspellings of taxa named by previous authors (lapsi calami), as well as manuscript names attributed to Cockerell “in litt.”, but ultimately published by another worker (eg. Lecanium lidgetti Fernald, 1903).

Two of the difficulties I encountered were the brevity of many of Cockerell’s  descriptions, coupled with his unfortunate habit of sometimes “prepublishing” descriptions – that is, where he gave a brief description of a new taxon in one article, and published a fuller description in a later one (e.g. Part I, ID #1831, Crocisa insulicola). In some cases, the description are so brief (especially those of varieties of mollusks that Cockerell named in the 1880’s) that an argument may be made that an adequate description is in fact lacking, and those names should rightly be considered as nomina nuda. Since I am not an authority on these groups, I chose to adopt the more conservative course of simply listing every name I could find, and leave it to more informed workers to decide the ultimate validity and availabilty of the names (not including the handful of taxa which are clearly nomina nuda).

The results are presented in four parts:

Part I comprises the available names of Hymenoptera (Insecta). The bulk of these entries are bees which constitute about 75% of all of Cockerell’s names. In this section, I have also endeavored to provide the institution where the type specimen is deposited (not provided in Parts II-IV).

Part II comprises the available names from the other orders of Insecta. About half of these names are from the order Hemiptera, which includes those taxa formerly placed under the separate order Homoptera (most of these names are of scale insects). The higher systematics of this group is still in a state of flux, and so for the purposes of this paper I have purposely separated these taxa into two orders, and used the more readily identifiable terms of Heteroptera (which may actually be a suborder) and Homoptera (which may be a paraphyletic assemblage including the Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha and Sternorrhyncha).

Part III includes the available names for all the non-Insecta (including other invertebrates,  vertebrates, plants and microorganisms). Unlike the preceding two sections, this section includes categories for Phylum and Class. Unfortunately, the state of the higher classifications of some of these groups (notably the Plantae and Mollusca) is in even greater flux than any of the insect groups. Additionally (being an entomologist), I am not familiar with many of these groups, and may have used some outmoded terminology in trying to characterize the higher classification of many of these taxa.

Part IV includes the unavailable names from all groups.

Each part is presented in the format of a Microsoft Access database, in a series of up to 15 columns.  An asterisk (*) in any column denotes that additional information about that category will be found under the “Comments” column. The categories of the columns are as follows:

ID: Unique number for each name within each of Parts I, II, III and IV but may be duplicated between Parts. The numerical sequence represents the order in which each name was entered into the database.

Taxon name: Epithet given by Cockerell in the original publication. I followed the modern convention of ignoring phonetic marks (diacritic marks, hyphens, numerals, etc.), even though Cockerell used these extensively. I also presented all specific and subspecific names with the initial letter in lower case, even though Cockerell occasionally capitalized these. In some cases, it was difficult to distinguish between the dipthongs “æ” (my “ae”) from  “œ” (my “oe”), and I may have confused them. If a specific or subspecific name was apparently misspelled in the original paper, I retained the original spelling, but noted the error under the “Comments” column.

Level: Taxonomic level of the taxon as originally described: spf= superfamily, f= family, sf= subfamily, t= tribe, g= genus, sg= subgenus, sec =section, s= species, ss=  subspecies, race, variety, form, mutation or monstrosity. In a few cases (e.g. Part I, ID #2381, Nomia grisella), Cockerell noted a new taxon may be either a species or subspecies. In these cases, I listed his first-given choice, including the other choice under the “Comments” column.

Genus: Genus of the taxon as originally described. When the entry in “Taxon name” is a genus, the entry in this column is identical. When the taxon is a suprageneric category (tribe or above), this column is left blank.  If a taxon has since been placed in a different genus, I noted this in the “Comments” column, although I have undoubtedly missed some of these transfers. If the genus of a new taxon was misspelled in the original paper, I corrected the spelling in the “Genus” column, and noted the lapsus under “Comments”.

Parent species: If a taxon was originally described as a subspecies, race, variety or other sub- or infraspecific form, this column notes the species in which the taxon was originally placed. This column will be blank for taxa originally described at the specific level or above. Rarely, a taxon was described at a subspecific level, without reference to a species (e.g. Part II, ID#7527-7528) – in these cases this field is left blank.

Date: Year of publication, mostly as per Weber. In a few cases the publication date appearing in Weber is wrong, and I have corrected them (e.g. Part I, Refs #3856-3858 were published in 1946, not 1945).

Phylum: Phylum in which the taxon is currently placed (not necessarily that in which it was originally placed). This column is missing in Parts I & II, which are all from the Insecta. For plants, I used the name of the kingdom (Plantae) in this column. For protists, I used the terms “Algae”or “Protozoa” where appropriate, or “Protists” where the placement was unclear.

Class: Class in which the taxon is currently placed (not necessarily that in which it was originally placed). This column is missing in Parts I & II which are all from the Insecta. The higher systematics of plants is currently in a state of chaos, and so for these taxa I used the term “Unplaced” in this column.

Order: Order in which the taxon is currently placed (not necessarily that in which it was originally placed). This column is missing in Part I, since all entries there are in the order Hymenoptera. In Part III, I used the term “Unplaced” in this column for plants for the same reason noted above under Class.

Family: Family in which the taxon is now placed (not necessarily that in which it was originally placed). Bee families are as per Michener (2000). I was not able to place all taxa to family, and for these I entered the term “Unplaced”.

Ref: Reference in which the taxon was published. The numbers are those presented in Weber. If the reference was not included in Weber’s work, I listed the author(s) and date of the paper here, and provided as full a citation as I could determine under References Cited.

First page: First page number in the reference in which the taxon is described. In a few cases, I cited the page(s) preceding the formal description if they included significant descriptive or diagnostic matter pertaining to the taxon in question (e.g. Philorites, Part II, ID#5475).

Last page: If a description continues beyond one page, the last page is noted here. In some cases, the ending point of the formal description is not clear, and/or additional text follows. In these cases I included extra pagination containing any relevant discussion which may help in diagnosing or otherwise aiding in distinguishing the taxon. If additional information is included on later (non-continual pages), I noted the extra pagination in the “Comments” column.

Coauthor: Any worker who is considered a coauthor of the taxon is listed here. The authors of a species description are not necessarily congruent with the authorship of the article in which the species description occurs. If another worker is a coauthor of the paper, but not of the taxon itself, that person is noted in the “Comments” column, but not the “Coauthor” column. I did not distinguish between senior and junior coauthors.

Fossil?: Presence of “+” indicates the taxon is extinct, while a blank entry indicates that it is extant. Family and order placement of Insecta follows Carpenter (1992).

Type deposition (Part I only): This column contains a coden denoting where the type specimen of a species or subspecies is supposedly deposited. This information was gleaned from several sources, including two lists hand-written by Cockerell (deposited at the Department of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences). These lists were originally sent from Cockerell to Isabel McCracken at Stanford Junior University in May and June of 1940, and list the institutions where the holotypes of various bee taxa were supposedly deposited. Supplementary information was gathered from the websites of several institutions, as well as the original publications, and Paul Hurd’s personal Xylocopa catalog. I used the codens developed by Evenhuis & Samuelson, available via the Bernice P. Bishop Museum’s website, (these are not necessarily the codens preferred by the institutions themselves). The key to the codens follows:

AMNH – American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA
AMS – Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, AUSTRALIA
ANIC – Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, ACT, AUSTRALIA
BMNH – British Museum of Natural History, London, UNITED KINGDOM
BPBM – Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, USA
CAS – California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA
CMNH – Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
CNC- Canadian National Insect Collection, Toronto, ON, CANADA
DMSA – Durban Museum, Durban, SOUTH AFRICA
MCZ – Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
MVMA –Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA
QM – Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Queensland, AUSTRALIA
RMCA – Musee Royal de l’Afrique Central, Tervuren, BELGIUM
TMSA – Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA
UCMC – Colorado University, Boulder, CO, USA
UCR – University of California, Riverside, CA, USA
UMO – Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM
UNSM – University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, NE, USA
USNM – National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
ZMHB – Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin, GERMANY
ZMUK – Zoological Museum, University of Königsberg, Kaliningrad, Russia

However, there are many problems with these data. In a recent e-mail posting, Charles Michener, of the University of Kansas, wrote the following:

“In recent literature and verbal discussions, I note signs of confusion about the type material of some species described by T.D.A. Cockerell.  Except in his early papers (probably before 1900), when Cockerell described a new species based on a single specimen, he labelled it TYPE.  Such specimens are obviously holotypes.  When he described a new species based on two or more specimens, he labelled one specimen TYPE; the others were labelled COTYPE. Thus he used TYPE in the sense of holotype.  Specimens labelled COTYPE are, in current terminology, paratypes.

Thus it is not necessary to formally designate his TYPE (=holotype) specimens as lectotypes, nor is it legitimate to designate a lectotype from among his cotype (=paratype) specimens unless the TYPE is lost. Like others, Cockerell occasionally made mistakes.  I have been told of a species for which two specimens were labelled TYPE.  Obviously they should be considered syntypes and one should be selected as the lectotype.

A different matter about Cockerell’s types:  he did not use red or any other color to make them readily recognizable.  Therefore they are easily lost among other specimens. Also his types are not always in the collection where one would expect to find them.”

(Note: In a footnote on page 261 in ref. #2370, S.A. Rohwer noted that Cockerell’s cotypes are essentially the same as paratypes).

Comments: Miscellaneous notes, including some synonymies and current valid names, duplicate entries of taxa, errata, authorship notations, etc.


I found a grand total of 9,051 (presumably) available names. Of these, 7,115 (78.7%) were described at the species level, while 1,326 (14.6%) were described at the subspecific level, 385 (4.3%) at the generic level, and 145 (1.6%) at the subgeneric level. Of the remainder, 2 were described as superfamilies, 17 as families, 37 as subfamilies, 22 as tribes, 1 as a subtribe and 1 as a section (each of these categories represent less than 0.5% of the total). The overwhelming majority of the names (7,866 = 86.9%) represent extant taxa, while 1,185 (13.1%) represent extinct taxa. The breakdown of names by taxonomic categories is listed below:

TAXON       NUMBER (% of total, where * = <0.5%)

Part I (Insecta: Hymenoptera)

Download MS Excel file of Hymenoptera names

Anaxyelidae                1 (*)
Argidae                       2 (*)
Cephidae                     1 (*)
Cimbicidae                  2 (*)
Diprionidae                 1 (*)
Pamphilidae                1 (*)
Pergidae                      1 (*)
Siricidae                      2 (*)
Tenthredinidae          24 (*)
Xyelidae                       2 (*)
Unknown family           1 (*)_______
Total                          38 (*)

Aphelinidae                  2 (*)
Aulacidae                   10 (*)
Braconidae                 21 (*)
Chalcididae                  3 (*)
Cynipidae                   11 (*)
Diapriidae                    5 (*)
Encyrtidae                    2 (*)
Eulophidae                   1 (*)
Figitidae                       1 (*)
Ichneumonidae          40 (*)
Proctotrupidae             1 (*)
Pteromalidae                5 (*)
Scelionidae                   5 (*)
Stephaniidae                2 (*)
Torymidae                    4 (*)
Trigonalyidae               2 (*)_________
Total                        115 (1.3)

Andrenidae              729 (10.8)
Apidae                    1686 (24.9)
Colletidae                 782 (11.6)
Halictidae               1594 (23.6)
Megachilidae          1567 (23.1)
Melittidae                  45 (*)
Stenotritidae               5 (*)_________ _
Total                       6405 (70.8)

Other Aculeata
Bethylidae                    7 (*)
Chrysididae                  7 (*)
Formicidae                 19 (*)
Mutillidae                   36 (*)
Pompilidae                   9 (*)
Scoliidae                      3 (*)
Sphecidae                100 (1.5)
Tiphiidae                    14 (*)
Vespidae                    16 (*)__________
Total                        211 (2.3)

Subtotal, Hymenoptera: 6772 (74.8)

Part II (Insecta: Non-Hymenoptera)

Download MS Excel file of non-Hymenoptera Insect names

Lepismatidae                 1 (*)_________
Total                              1 (*)

Ephemeridae               1 (*)
Hexgenitidae               2 (*)
Oligoneuriidae             1 (*)
Protereismatidae         1 (*)
Siphlonuridae               2 (*)
Unplaced to family       1 (*)___________
Total                            8 (*)

Aeschnidae                  3 (*)
Aeshnidae                  10 (*)
Agrionidae                   7 (*)
Allopetaliidae              1 (*)
Brachytronidae           1 (*)
Calopterygidae            9 (*)
Coenagrionidae           4 (*)
Euphaeidae                 2 (*)
Lestidae                      3 (*)
Libellulidae                 3 (*)
Megapodagrionidae    2 (*)
Synlestidae                 1 (*)
Telephlebiidae            2 (*)
Zacallitidae                 3 (*)
Unplaced to family      4 (*)____________
Total                         55 (*)

Pachytylopsidae          2 (*)
Spanioderidae             1 (*)
Unplaced to family      5 (*)____________
Total                           8 (*)

Acrididae                  13 (*)
Eospilopteronidae      3 (*)
Eumastacidae             3 (*)
Gryllacrididae              1 (*)
Gryllidae                    11 (*)
Haglidae                      3 (*)
Locustopseidae          1 (*)
Stenopelmatidae        4 (*)
Tettigoniidae             3 (*)
Unplaced to family     1 (*)____________
Total                         43 (*)

Mantidae                      5 (*)____________
Total                             5 (*)

Archimylacridae         24 (*)
Blattidae                      2 (*)
Mylacridae                    8 (*)
Unplaced                      7 (*)_____________
Total                           41 (*)

Hodotermitidae            2 (*)
Rhinotermitidae           1 (*)
Termopsidae                 1 (*)_____________
Total                             4 (*)

Carcinophoridae          1 (*)
Labiduridae                 1 (*)_____________
Total                            2 (*)

Embiidae                      1 (*)
Notoligotomidae          2 (*)_____________
Total                            3 (*)

Perlidae                         1 (*)_____________
Total                              1 (*)

Pachytroctidae             1 (*)
Peripsocidae                 1 (*)
Psocidae                       1 (*)
Psyllipsocidae               1 (*)_____________
Total                             4 (*)

Belostomatidae            1 (*)
Coreidae                       2 (*)
Corixidae                      1 (*)
Cydnidae                      1 (*)
Enicocephalidae           4 (*)
Gerridae                       1 (*)
Lygaeidae                     2 (*)
Pentatomidae               6 (*)
Reduviidae                    4 (*)
Tingidae                        2 (*)___________
Total                            24 (*)

Aclerdidae                     4 (*)
Aleyrodidae                  21 (*)
Aphididae                     22 (*)
Asterolecaniidae           12 (*)
Cercopidae                      7 (*)
Cerococcidae                  8 (*)
Cicadae                           3 (*)
Cicadellidae                    5 (*)
Cixiidae                           7 (*)
Coccidae                     185 (*)
Conchaspididae              4 (*)
Dactylopiidae                11 (*)
Delphacidae                    3 (*)
Diaspididae                 189 (*)
Eriococcidae                 24 (*)
Flatidae                           1 (*)
Fulgoridae                     28 (*)
Halimococcidae              2 (*)
Kermesidae                   14 (*)
Kerriidae                       13 (*)
Lecanodiaspididae          6 (*)
Margarodidae                42 (*)
Ortheziidae                   10 (*)
Phenacoleachiidae          1 (*)
Phoenicococcidae           4 (*)
Pseudococcidae            89 (*)
Psyllidae                          7 (*)
Stictococcidae                2 (*)
Unplaced to family          7 (*)____________
Total                          731 (8.1)

Aeolothripidae                 1 (*)____________
Total                                1 (*)

Chrysopidae                     4 (*)
Hemerobiidae                  2 (*)
Inocellidae                       1 (*)
Mantispidae                     1 (*)
Meropidae                       2 (*)
Nemopteridae                 1 (*)
Osmylidae                        2 (*)
Panorpidae                      2 (*)
Raphidiidae                     4 (*)
Unplaced to family           4 (*)_____________
Total                               23 (*)

Anthicidae                       1 (*)
Anthribidae                      1 (*)
Attelabidae                      1 (*)
Buprestidae                      5 (*)
Calandridae                      4 (*)
Cantharidae                      1 (*)
Carabidae                        22 (*)
Cerambycidae                 12 (*)
Chrysomelidae                  9 (*)
Cleridae                            2 (*)
Coccinellidae                    4 (*)
Colydiidae                        1 (*)
Cryptophagidae                1 (*)
Curculionidae                 30 (*)
Dascillidae                        2 (*)
Dermestidae                     1 (*)
Dytiscidae                        1 (*)
Elateridae                       10 (*)
Erotylidae                         2 (*)
Hydrophilidae                   1 (*)
Lampyridae                       1 (*)
Meloidae                           3 (*)
Mordellidae                       1 (*)
Otiorhynchidae                 1 (*)
Paussidae                          2 (*)
Pedilidae                           1 (*)
Rhipiphordae                    1 (*)
Scarabaeidae                     7 (*)
Scolytidae                         2 (*)
Silphidae                           3 (*)
Staphylinidae                    1 (*)
Tenebrionidae                   6 (*)
Throscidae                         1 (*)
Unplaced                           7 (*)_____________
Total                             148 (1.6)

Eomeropidae                       1 (*)
Panorpidae                          3 (*)_____________
Total                                    4 (*)

Anthomyiidae                      5 (*)
Asilidae                              17 (*)
Bibionidae                          25 (*)
Blepharoceridae                   5 (*)
Bombyliidae                       30 (*)
Cecidomyiidae                   27 (*)
Chironomidae                      5 (*)
Chloropidae                         3 (*)
Crosophilidae                       1 (*)
Culicidae                              5 (*)
Dixiidae                               2 (*)
Empididae                          14 (*)
Ephrydridae                         2 (*)
Glossinidae                          3 (*)
Heleomyzidae                      1 (*)
Leptidae                               8 (*)
Muscidae                              2 (*)
Mycetophilidae                   28 (*)
Mydaidae                              1 (*)
Nemestrinidae                      9 (*)
Ortalidae                               1 (*)
Phoridae                               1 (*)
Platypezidae                         3 (*)
Psychodidae                         5 (*)
Ptychopteridae                    1 (*)
Rhyphidae                            1 (*)
Richardiidae                         7 (*)
Scathophagidae                    1 (*)
Sciomyzidae                         1 (*)
Sphaeroceridae                    1 (*)
Stratiomyidae                       8 (*)
Streblidae                             1 (*)
Syrphidae                             9 (*)
Tabanidae                             4 (*)
Tephritidae                           2 (*)
Therevidae                           6 (*)
Tipulidae                            45 (*)
Trypetidae                            2 (*)
Unplaced to family                2 (*)__________
Total                                 294 (3.3)


Beraeidae                              2 (*)
Hydropsychidae                    1 (*)
Hydroptilidae                        1 (*)
Limnephilidae                     13 (*)
Molannidae                           1 (*)
Odontoceridae                      5 (*)
Philopotamidae                     1 (*)
Phryganeidae                        8 (*)
Unplaced to family                3 (*)________
Total                                    35 (*)

Agrotidae                              1 (*)
Arctiidae                               1 (*)
Coleophoridae                       2 (*)
Cossidae                                4 (*)
Crambidae                             2 (*)
Gelechiidae                           2 (*)
Geometridae                         5 (*)
Lycaenidae                            1 (*)
Micropterygidae                    1 (*)
Noctuidae                            10 (*)
Notodontidae                        1 (*)
Nymphalidae                         8 (*)
Papilionidae                          2 (*)
Pieridae                                 5 (*)
Prodoxidae                            2 (*)
Pyralidae                               3 (*)
Riodinidae                            1 (*)
Saturniidae                            4 (*)
Sesiidae                                 3 (*)
Sphingidae                            3 (*)
Syntomidae                           1 (*)
Thyrididae                             2 (*)
Tineidae                                1 (*)
Tortricidae                            2 (*)
Unplaced to family                4 (*)________
Total                                  71 (0.5)

Unplaced to Order                 5 (*)

Subtotal, non-Hymenoptera Insecta:                       1511 (16.7)


Part III  (Non-Insecta)

Download MS Excel file of non-Insect names

Protoza (Lobosa)                   3 (*)

Algae                                     2 (*)
Unplaced                               1 (*)_______
Total Protista                        6 (*)

Urediniomyctes                      1 (*)______
Total Basidiomycota               1 (*)

Unplaced                            301 (3.3)______
Total Plantae                      301 (3.3)

Demospongia                          1 (*)_______
Total Porifera                          1(*)

Anthozoa                                2 (*)
Hydrozoa                                 1 (*)
Scyphoza                                 1 (*)_______
Total                                        4 (*)

Arthropoda (-Insecta)
Arachnida                              19 (*)
Ostracoda                                1 (*)
Malacostraca                            3 (*)
Diplopoda                                2 (*)
Chilopoda                                1 (*)_______
Total                                      26 (*)

Crinoidea                                  1 (*)______
Total                                         1 (*)

Unplaced                                   8 (*)______
Total                                         8 (*)

Inarticulata                                 1 (*)_______
Total                                           1 (*)

Aplacophora                             1 (*)
Gastropoda                          335 (3.7)
Bivalvia                                   13 (*)__________
Total                                    352 (3.7)

Actinoptereygii                      63 (0.7)
Aves                                         1 (*)
Mammalia                                 3 (*)
Unplaced                                  3 (*)___________       
Total                                      70 (0.8)

Subtotal, non-Insecta         768 (8.5)


Part IV

Download MS Excel file of Unavailable names

In addition to the 9,043 available names noted above, there are an additional 36 names which appear to be unavailable (mostly nomina nuda).

Unresolved items
Two names (“Limax agrestris var. azorica Ckll” and Limax agrestris var. bimaculata Cockerell”) are mentioned in Taylor (1902-1907) or Ellis (1926), but neither is listed in Cockerell’s own reviews, and thus are probaly manuscript names.

I came across mention of 12 mollusk names, but was unable to track down the actual references in which they may have been described or otherwise noted. Thus I am unable to determine if these names are formally published, manuscript, or otherwise unavailable. The names (and whatever partial publication data I could find) are:

Arion empiricorum fasciatus 1889.
Arion fasciatus ambiguus subalbidus 1891.
(?British Naturalist 1: 101 as Arion circumscriptus ambiguus subalbida)
Arion fasciatus subfuscus atripunctatus 1891.
Helix aspera nigrescens 1888. Naturalist (=Yorkshire Naturalist Union)
Helix aspersa semifusca 1888. Naturalist (=Yorkshire Naturalist Union): 108
Helix hortensis roseozonata 1888. Naturalist (=Yorkshire Naturalist Union):111
Helix (Lucerna) vendryesi 1892.
Junior synonym of Pleurodonte sloaneana (Pfeiffer, 1868)
Hesperarion niger maculatus, 1892.
Originally described in Ariolimax; description in Pilsbry & Vaneta (1898): 219-261
Limax flavus nigromaculatus 1893.
Limax marginatus submaculatus 1890.
Limax maximus marmoratus 1885.
Phasianella pullus ziczac 1885.  Naturalist World 2: 218

Finally, “Melipona fasciata lutzi” (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is listed on a webpage detailing the type specimens held at the American Museum of Natural History ( This is a manuscript name for a specimen in that institution, and as far as I can determine, has never appeared in any other publication.


First and foremost, I wish to acknowledge the contribution of Bill Weber of the University of Colorado, not only for the compilation of Cockerell’s Bibliography, but also for having the foresight to rescue Cockerell’s reprints and sending duplicate sets to various institutions – as well as for his help in tracking down numerous references and taxa. I also wish to thank David Hays and Anna Wagner of the Norlin Library, at the University of Colorado, in facilitating my productive visit to the archives there. I wish to give hearty thanks to John Ascher (National University of Singapore), who provided immeasurable help for my numerous questions about bee systematics and nomenclature, as well as Doug Yanega (University of California, Riverside), who graciously shared with me his database of taxonomic names, and Paul Hurd’s Xylocopa catalog. Additional information was provided by Connal Eardley (Plant Protection Research Institute), Charles Michener (University of Kansas), Jack Neff (Central Texas Melittological Institute), Michael Batley (Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia) and Gerhard Haszprunar (Bavarian Natural History Collections).



Aldrich, J.M. 1905. A catalogue of North American Diptera. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 46 (1444): 680 pp.

Bechly, G. 1996. Morphologische Untersuchungen am Flügelgeäder der rezenten Libellen und deren stammgruppenvertreter (Insecta; Pterygota; Odonata) unter besonder Berücksichtigung der Phylogenetischen Systematik und des Grundplanes der Odonata. Petalura, Special volume 1: 341 pp.

Bechly, G. 2005. (Website) Phylogenetic Systematics of Odonata.
Ben-Dov, Y. & D. Miller. (Website) Scale Net.

Binney, W.G. 1890. A third supplement to the fifth volume of the terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and adjacent territories. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 19(4): 183-226. (Cockerell species on pp 209, 211, 212)

Bouchet, P. & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 397 pp.

Carpenter, F.M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda. Vols. 3 & 4 in Part R (Arthropoda 4), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas, Boulder, CO & Lawrence, KS.

Clark, A.H. 1913. A revision of the American species of Peripatus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 26: 15-19

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1889. Arion ater. (Hardwicke’s) Science Gossip 25: 141

—. 1890. Limax arborum form submaculatus f. nov. Nautilus 4: 12

—. 1891a. New forms of American Mollusca. Zoe 2:18

—. 1891b. Title Unknown. British Naturalist 1: 100?

—. 1891c. Institute of Jamaica. Notes from the Museum no. 2. Some interesting
scale insects. Jamaica Post (Dec.14): 5.

—. 1893a. A New Lecanium – Lecanium rubellum n.sp. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica 1: 378-379

—. 1893b. Aspidiotus bowreyi, n. sp. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica 1: 383

—. 1893c. Abstract of Proceedings, March 12th, 1891. Proceedings South London
Entomological & Natural History Society 1890-1891:109-110

—. 1893d. List of terrestial Mollusca found by Mr. J.T. Carrington. Proceedings South London Entomological & Natural History Society 1890-1891: pp.167-168.

—. 1896. A checklist of the Coccidae. Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 4: 318-339

—. 1900. Epismilia. (Hardwicke’s) Science Gossip. 6: 606

Cockerell, T.D.A. & M. Cooper. 1902. Notes on Ashmunella. Nautilus 15: 109-110

Ehrhorn, E.M. 1898. New Coccidae from California. Entomological News 9: 185-186

Ellis, A.E. 1926. British snails – a guide to the non-marine Gastropoda of Great Britain and Ireland, Pliocene to Recent. Oxford Claredon Press, 275 pp.

Farr, E. & G. Zijlstra. (Website) Index Nominum Genericorum.

King, G.B. 1901. Lecanium websteri, Cockerell and King n. sp. with notes on allied forms. Canadian Entomologist 33: 106-109

King, G.B. 1902. Some new Coccidae. Entomological News 13: 41-43

Michener, C.D. 2000. The bees of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 913 pp.

Pilsbry, H.A. 1926. The land mollusks of the republic of Panama and the Canal Zone. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 78: 57-127

Pilsbry, H.A. 1939-1948. Land Mollusca of North America (north of Mexico). Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3:
1939 Volume 1, part 1: 1- 573
1940 Volume 1, part 2: 575-994
1946 Volume 2, part 1: 1-520
1948 Volume 2, part 2: 521-1113

Pilsbry, H.A. & E.G. Vanetta. 1898. Revision of the North American slugs: Binneya, Hemphillia, Hesperarion, Prophysaon and Anadenulus. Proceedings of the Academy of. Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 50: 219-261

Snelling, R. 1985. The systematics of the Hylaeine bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) of the Ethiopian zoogeographic region: the genera and subgenera with revisions of the smaller groups.  Contributions in Science, Natural Museum Los Angeles County #361, 33pp.

Starr, D.J. 1963. The genera of fishes and a classification of fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 800 pp.

Sterki, V. 1892. Preliminary list of North American Pupidae (north of Mexico). Nautilus 6(1): 2-8

Sterki, V. 1893. Observations on Vallonia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 45: 234-281

Taylor, J.W. (1902-1907). Monograph of the land and freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles 2(8-13): Testacellidae, Limacidae, Arionidae. 312 pp.

Weber, W.A. 1965. Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell, 1866-1948. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Bibliography, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado. 124 pp